Business English

środa, 03 marca 2010

Facebook recruiting for individuals who are looking for employment on a professional level is nothing new.  There are many individuals who are on Facebook as well as other social networks online who are there to network with others for employment opportunities as well as professional reasons.  Social recruiting firms use these outlets to bring the most talented individuals to employment recruiting firms as well as businesses.

Social recruiting is the most effective form of recruiting for professionals today.  Busy professionals usually use networking to discover about employment opportunities in this field.  Facebook recruiting is one of the ways that many of these networks are discovering talented people to fill different positions.  There are social recruiting agencies that perform this type of work and can provide leads for both companies looking for individuals as well as recruiting firms.

In addition to Facebook recruiting, social recruiting goes on in various social networking forums throughout the internet.  Most people today realize the importance of networking in order to connect with others for various professional purposes as well as the value of the internet for this purpose.  Social recruiting agencies will use sites like Facebook and others to help find the right people for employment agencies as well as companies.  This type of networking is easier than traditional, face to face networking and is far more effective when it comes to reaching out to more individuals.  Those who are looking for a way to find new talent when it comes to employment, such as those at recruiting firms, can use the social networking agencies that will recruit from the social networks for them.

Because there are so many social networks that people are using, it is helpful for companies and recruiting agencies to use a social recruiting agency instead of trying to recruit on their own.  Facebook recruiting is but one way to get the right individuals from the internet, but is far from the only way.  A social recruiting firm can find the right people through the various different social networks that are out there, saving your own firm time, and bring them to you.  This is a far more effective way to gather the right individuals for the type of employment opportunities that your firm offers or represents.

Instead of the old fashioned networking that professionals used to do, many are doing a bulktap into this market.  Facebook recruiting is but one of the ways that social recruiting can work for agencies as well as companies.  Instead of placing ads to try to find the right individuals, it is far more effective for those who are looking for people to fill positions, especially professional people, to look towards a social recruiting agency where they can go right to the source and get individuals who are online and networking themselves. of their networking online.  It pays for recruiting agencies as well as companies that do their own hiring to understand about this and also use a social recruiting firm so that they can

Adapted from:



social network - a social network service uses software to build online social networks for communities of people who share interests and activities or who are interested in exploring the interests and activities of others

outlet –a way of communicating with people or getting something done

field - an area of activity or interest

to fill a position – to give a job or position to someone

lead - a piece of information which allows a discovery to be made or a solution to be found

go on - to take place; happen:

purpose - why you do something or why something exists

value - how useful or important something is

face to face - in person; directly

source - the place something comes from or starts at, or the cause of something

gather - to collect several things, often from different places or people

bulk - something that is very large

tap into - to establish a connection with; have access to

reach out - to try to communicate with a person or a group of people, usually in order to help or involve them



Read the text and answer the questions true or false:

1. Social networking for employment involves looking for employment only through recruiting agencies.

2. Facebook turned out to be an alternative way of seeking employment opportunities.

3. Recruiting individuals from the internet, is far from traditional, face to face networking.

4. Social recruiting is getting increasingly popular and successful nowadays.

5. The author of the article suggests that social networking on the internet will replace traditional recruiting.



Read the text one more time and fill in the gaps with the missing words:

1. I'm sorry, the job has already been………………..

2. A ……………..from an informer enabled the police to make several arrests.

3. His only ………………… life seems to be to enjoy himself.

4. I went to several libraries to …………………information about the scheme.

5. I would rather talk …………………. than negotiate over the telephone.

6. The photos are of ……………………historical value.

7. Oranges are a good …………………. of vitamin C.

8. The head of the department didn't know what was ………………. on in other departments.

9. The new mayor is ………………….. out to the local community to involve them in his plans for the city


Sprawdź odpowiedzi na

piątek, 26 lutego 2010

While you may not think that nervousness is beneficial in public speaking or for that matter in any other type of live performance, be it in the performing arts or in professional sports, the truth is that there are wonderful bonuses of the dreaded adrenaline rush.  Many people, however, are unable to appreciate just what nervousness can do for them, because they have no control over it.

In truth, I would rather an individual be nervous in public speaking than not because nervousness or the increased level of stress actually increases your chances of success at the lectern.  The problem for many people is that their nervousness in is control of them instead of the other way around.  That, in itself, is a reason to fear public speaking. And, in cases like this, your level of stress continues to increase thereby increasing your nervousness instead of decreasing it.

When Indianapolis played New Orleans this month, do you not think the football players were nervous?  Of course they were.  It was the Super Bowl!  Nervousness is not something that happens just to you.  It happens to all of us in one manner or another.  The difference between you and the football player, for example, is that he puts his nervousness to good use, just as actors, musicians, singers, and professional speakers do.

Being able to control your anxiety, nervousness, jitters or whatever you call it means that you will discover: a heightened awareness of all of your senses, the ability to be more focused, and, an increase in your level of enthusiasm – which your audience will feel as well.

Nervousness is debilitating only if you allow it to be.   So, how do you take control of your nervousness and allow it to work for you?  By learning how to breathe with the support of your diaphragm.  If you have never thought of breathing in this manner, you might want to learn this technique.  In doing so, you will also discover an overall reduction in the stress you encounter on a daily basis.

If you would like to know if you are breathing properly, stand in front of a mirror – minussuck in your mid-torso region?  If so, then you are breathing incorrectly:  you are a lazy or shallow breather.   By breathing in this manner, the nervousness you feel at the lectern will only be exacerbated. your shirt or blouse – and take a deep breath.  Did your shoulder rise?  Did you

Make diaphragmatic breathing a habit and watch what happens the next time you have to give a presentation or speech.  There is nothing better for controlling nervousness than breathing with this support.  Imagine controlling your nervousness, putting an end to breathlessnessdelivery just by taking a proper breath.  Pretty novel and actually having control over your idea, isn’t it?

Adapted from:


beneficial - helpful, useful or good

performance - how well a person, machine, etc. does a piece of work or an activity

adrenaline rush - sudden burst of emotion associated with certain chemicals or situations

dread - to feel extremely worried or frightened about something that is going to happen or that might happen

appreciate - to recognize or understand that something is valuable, important or as described

increase - to (make something) become larger in amount or size

decrease - to become less, or to make something become less

lectern - a piece of furniture with a sloping part on which a book or paper is put to be read from

thereby - as a result of this action

put sth to good use - to apply a skill or ability; to use a skill or ability

anxiety - an uncomfortable feeling of nervousness or worry about something that is happening or might happen in the future

heighten - to increase or make something increase, especially an emotion or effect

awareness - knowledge that something exists, or understanding of a situation or subject at the present time based on information or experience

jitters - a feeling of nervousness which you experience before something important happens

audience - the group of people together in one place to watch or listen to a play, film, someone speaking, etc.

debilitating - to make someone or something physically weak

diaphragm - the muscle which separates the chest from the lower part of the body

encounter - to experience, especially something unpleasant

on daily basis - happening or done every day

manner- the way in which something is done

overall - n general rather than in particular, or including all the people or things in a particular group or situation

minus – (here) without

suck in - to draw in (one's breath) sharply

exacerbate - to make something which is already bad worse

put an end to something – to stop something

breathlessness - breathing with difficulty

novel - new and original, not like anything seen before

delivery - the way in which someone speaks in public



Read the text and answer the questions true or false.

1. Nervousness can actually be very helpful in public speaking.

2. The main disadvantage of nervousness is that people have no control over it.

3. It is possible to put nervousness to good use only by actors, musicians, singers, and professional speakers.

4. Proper breathing can help you take control of your nervousness.

5. Adrenaline rush and breathlessness are side effects of nervousness.



Read the text one more time and fill in the gaps with missing words from the glossary.

1. The ……………………… was clearly delighted with the ………………………

2. When did you first ……………………………these difficulties?

3. The pianist put his talents to ……………… at the party.

4. The strong police presence only ………………………..the tension among the crowd.

5. There's no point buying him expensive wines - he doesn't …………………………… them.

6. He's …………………… his driving test - he's sure he's going to fail.

7. The lights went out, and that ………….. an end to our game of cards.

8. Keeping a sheep in the garden is a  ……………………… way of keeping the grass short!

9. Environmental ……………………… has …………………… dramatically over the past decade.

10.  The improvement in sales figures had a  …………………… influence on the company as a whole.


Sprawdź odpowiedzi na

wtorek, 23 lutego 2010

I have earned a lot of money in my life. But I have never had an extravagant life. I don’t own a house. I’ve never bought a new car. I’ve never bought a new piece of living room furniture, and I do not own a single piece of real jewelry. What I have spent money on was always intended to help me with my career. That was so I know that I can always earn money doing something I love.

I leased a BMW when it was clear that that mattered when it came to making deals in LA. I hired a stylist when I realized my clothes were holding me back in New York City. In Madison, WI, I have tons of household help so my kids don’t have a crazy schedule because of my work schedule. I am convinced that frugality is a key quality for a successful career. Here are some of the reasons why frugality helps your career:

Spending money is generally a distraction. We know this – that people use it as therapy. People use it to fill holes they perceive in their lives. But the psychic energy it takes to spend money actually distracts us from what really matters to us. Pay Pal reports that people wish their significant other would spend less money on Valentine’s Day. This encapsulates the whole problem to me. Spending money is a vehicle for overcommitting. The biggest example of this is graduate school. The people who do best in a bad economy are those who are flexible about the types of jobs they can take and the types of careers they can move into, according to Philip Oreopoulos, professor of economics at the University of Toronto. This flexibility is specifically limited if you go to graduate school – you commit two, three, four years to a given career, whether or not it’s going to pan out for you in the long run. And you commit to paying back school loans, which means you need to take a job that earns enough to pay off those loans.

Spending money limits possibilities. If you invest in an expensive bicycle because you’re going to do triathlons, then you limit your ability to take off more time from work to actually train for the triathlon. In most cases, renting a house is better for you than buying one: If you buy a house, you cannot easily downsize, you cannot as easily relocate, and you end up limiting your earning power. (My brother would argue that the current housing market makes this a good time to buy.)

Entrepreneurship is a safety net if you’re frugal in your home life. Careers today are unstable, and while companies used to provide safety nets for employees, today we have to create our own safety nets. The best way to do that is with entrepreneurship. But starting your own company is nearly impossible if you have high income requirements. Startups don’t provide high incomes at the beginning.

As I write this, I think about my friends who spend a lot more money than I do. I have friends with really nice houses, friends who take super fun vacations, and I have friends who would not be caught dead in the clothes I wear to work (for example, plastic rain boots because I don’t want to pay for snow boots). My friends would say there’s a compromise: You don’t need to invest everything in your career. You don’t need to give up all the creature comforts of life. You can still have a good situation with both.

Maybe it’s my obsessive nature. I’m willing to make extreme tradeoffs. I wrote earlier about wanting to be an expert. About how it takes a singular, daily focus. And I think I have had that with writing. But in order to do it, I have given up a lot. I’m not sure if that’s right.

Do we hear about Mozart playing kickball? I know, there wasn’t any kickball in the 1700s. But if there had been, he wouldn’t have played it. Because you give up stuff.

So I guess what I’m saying is that being an expert in something requires frugality. It’s not just a spending frugality. It’s a focus frugality. It’s the recognition that spending money is actually a distraction from the passion at hand. So the less you spend, the less you’re distracted.

Adapted from


hold sb back - to stop someone or something developing or doing as well as they should

frugality - careful when using money or food, or (of a meal) cheap or small in amount

distraction - something that prevents someone from concentrating on what they are doing

perceive - to see something or someone, or to notice something that is obvious

encapsulate - to express or show the most important facts about something

overcommitting - To bind or obligate (oneself, for example) beyond the capacity for realization.

flexible - able to change or be changed easily according to the situation

in the long run - In the final analysis or outcome.

commit - to promise or give your loyalty, time or money to a particular principle, person or plan of action

safety net - a system to help those who have serious problems and no other form of help

pan out - to develop in a particular way or in a successful way

pay off - If something you have done pays off, it is successful

take time off - take time off from work; stop working temporarily

downsize - If you downsize a company or organization, you make it smaller by reducing the number of people working for it, and if it downsizes, it becomes smaller in this way

Entrepreneurship - starting your own business, especially when this involves seeing a new opportunity

Requirement - something that you must do, or something you need

Startup - a small business that has just been started

give up - To abandon what one is doing or planning to do

tradeoff - a situation in which you accept something bad in order to have something good


Read the text and answer the question True or False

1. The author of the article promotes Frugality as a way of living.

2. According to the article spending money is the right strategy to achieve what really matters to us.

3. Setting up your own business is the best way to avoid the insecurity of unstable market.

4. The author of the article values compromises over tradeoffs  in life.


Read the text one more time and fill in the gaps with the missing words

1. She felt that having children would ………………… her back.

2. I can turn the television off if you find it a ………………….

3. A good degree is a minimum …………………… for many jobs.

4. He ………………….up on writing the novel.

5. It was very difficult to ……………………….. the story of the revolution in a single one-hour documentary.

6. I …………………….. a note of unhappiness in her voice.

7. For some car buyers, lack of space is an acceptable ……………………….for a sporty design.

8. All her hard work …………………… off in the end, and she finally passed the exam.

9. Like so many men, he has problems ………………………….himself to a relationship.

10. We had very little money left, so we ate …………………in cheap cafés and bars.

11. My schedule is quite ……………………- I could arrange to meet with you any day next week

Sprawdź odpowiedzi na

poniedziałek, 08 lutego 2010

Economy growing, competition increasing, and businesses expanding; a lot has happened in these few years and a lot more is about to happen. So where do we stand in this competitive economy if we are not in tune with the major trends of today's business. One such major trend being 'Outsourcing'. So what is Outsourcing all about? Let us find out in depth.

Outsourcing to put it in definition would mean, shifting or delegating a company's day to day operations or business processes to an external service provider; of course done in anticipation of better quality, lower rates and in a sense getting an edge over one's competitors. Not clear? Well to be more precise; Outsourcing is the work done for a company by people other than the company's full time employees. Now these people could be anywhere and they might have their offices in any part of the world, speaking a different language and working in a different time frame. That's the reason why selecting your outsourcing destination becomes so very important.

Now please bear in mind that outsourcing is different from contracting as in contracting the buyer is in total control of the process, while in outsourcing there is transfer of control of the process to the supplier.

What kind of services can you outsource?

Outsourcing of services can be mainly divided in to technological services outsourcing and business process outsourcing.

Why should I outsource?

There are hundreds of reasons to justify Outsourcing. It allows you to cut costs, increase profitability and productivity, provide better service at lower rates and many other.

Who should outsource?

If you ask us, we would say there are no particular objections. Almost all companies right from small office home offices, to small and medium scale industries to major large scale industries can take advantage of outsourcing. After all why should anyone stay back?

The final word

Outsourcing as globalization is a phenomena or rather an evolution that was waiting to happen. There may be oppositions and there may be speculations about Outsourcing; but the success stories by far outdo the others, to turn this unavoidable phenomenon into a win-winultimately it's you who has to decide what's good and what's bad. A strategic vision, better planning and good outsourcing knowledge could well help you in creating an Outsourcing success story.



increase - to (make something) become larger in amount or size

expand - to increase in size, number or importance, or to make something increase in this way

to be about to do sth - to be going to do something very soon

in tune with - If you are in tune with people or ideas, you understand or agree with them, and if you are out of tune with them, you do not

in depth - in a serious and detailed way

shift - to get rid of something unwanted, or to sell something

delegate - to give a particular job, duty, right, etc. to someone else so that they do it for you

day to day - happening every day as a regular part of your job or life

external - coming from the outside

in anticipation of - in preparation for something happening

getting an edge over - to have an advantage over

destination - the place where someone is going or where something is being sent or taken

contract - to make a legal agreement with someone to do work or to have work done for you

transfer - to move someone or something from one place, vehicle, person or group to another

supplier - a company, person, etc. that provides things that people want or need, especially over a long period of time

win-win - A win-win situation or result is one that is good for everyone who is involved

take advantage of - to use the good things in a situation

stay back - to keep one's distance from someone or something.

phenomena - something that exists and can be seen, felt, tasted, etc., especially something which is unusual or interesting

ultimately - used to emphasize the most important fact in a situation

unavoidable - impossible to avoid

objections - when someone expresses or feels opposition to or dislike of something or someone



Read the text and answer the question True or False

1. Outsourcing is basically the procuring of services or products, from an outside supplier or manufacturer in order to cut costs.

2. The matter of selecting your outsourcing destination is important because the people cannot be from anywhere.

3. The difference between contracting and outsourcing is that the buyer is in charge of the process, whereas, in outsourcing it is the supplier who controls the process

4. The main advantage of outsourcing is that it takes a lot of responsibility from  the company’s  shoulders.



Fill in the gaps with the missing words from the glossary

1. The cost of the project has ………………dramatically since it began.

2. Much of his success comes from being in …………….. with what his customers want.

3. As a boss you have to ………………. responsibilities to your staff.

4. She's even decorated the spare room in ………………. of your visit.

5. They have just …………………. our company to build shelters for the homeless.

6. Flexible working hours are a ………………….. situation for employers and employees

7. I thought I'd take …………………… of the sports facilities while I'm here.


Sprawdź odpowiedzi na

Przejdź do lekcji



Read the article and answer the question True or False

1. Business plans come in several forms ranging from concise briefs to 50 pages long elaborates

2. Preparing a cohesive and convincing business plan guarantees winning financial support for your project.

3. Among the five most common types of documents the executive summary and a synopsis are as a matter of fact closest to each other.

4. A full business plan and an operational business plan are alike and have no significant differences as far as content and objectives are concerned.


Read the text and fill in the gaps with the missing words from the glossary

1. She advised us to look abroad for more lucrative business…………………….

2. Please …………………..receipt of this letter.

3. We need to look …………………as much as five years to make realistic plans.

4. We've had three sets of …………………….. buyers looking round the house.

5. This new paint scraper really does the………………..

6. What's the ………………outcome of this whole business?

7. We need financial ………………….for the project.

8. I guess I don't have what it  …………….to be a composer.

9. For further information, please refer to the …………………..leaflet.

Sprawdź odpowiedzi na

When entrepreneurs seek funding for a new venture, potential investors often want to see a business plan. The question is: What kind?

If you are searching for funding—whether from venture capitalists, angel investors, bankers, or even friends and family—one of the first requests you'll receive is this: "Send along your business plan." Before you hang up the phone or acknowledge the e-mail, you may want to ask one question: What kind of business plan do you want me to send?

Business plans come in several forms, and before you start writing a 35-page document, you may want to determine whether a one- or two-page summary might do the trick, or vice-versa. Just keep in mind that whatever type of document you send, it must do more than simply describe your business—it must also sell you and your business and convince the backer you have what it takes to make the business succeed over the long term.

Here are the five most common types of documents that can fill a request for a written business plan, from most basic to most involved.

AN EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. An executive summary is essentially a business plan in miniature and shouldn't be longer than two pages. That means it should cover the main components—the strategy, the management team, the market, the product or service, the sales plan, and the finances. But it must go beyond simply addressing these issues in factual format like an abstract or an outline, as if hitting items on a list. It should integrate them in a cohesiveconvincing way that interests and stimulates the investor candidate. and

A SYNOPSIS. A synopsis might best be described as an executive summary on steroids. From a writing and presentation perspective, a business synopsis is a cross between an executive summary in traditional business plans and a business proposal. The emphasis here is less on the particulars of the idea and more on why the idea is especially relevant to the investor. Does your business somehow complement the venture capital firm's other investments from an industry perspective? Does it open up a new opportunity area the investor is likely to be interested in, based on his past experience? In other words, the focus is on convincing and selling the recipient.

A SUMMARY BUSINESS PLAN. This is a document typically 10 pages or fewer. It includes an executive summary, and then a page or so of explanation of each of the key components of a business plan. So it expands on what an executive summary or synopsis provides. Its financial section may look ahead a year or two instead of the traditional three to five years. A summary business plan has become the most common answer to the request from prospective investors, in my experience.

A FULL BUSINESS PLAN. This is the traditional business plan of 25 to 35 pages that gets written about in books on planning. Each section of the plan is explained in full—lots of industry marketing data to back up the marketing section, much detail about features and warranties in the product description, and full financial projections including cash flow, looking ahead three to five years.

AN OPERATIONAL BUSINESS PLAN. This is the most detailed plan, since it is for companies that are already operating and thus have a history and an existing strategy. Moreover, such companies tend to develop a business plan literally to plan the business, rather than simply to raise money. A complete operational plan may be 50 or more pages, going into detail about sales, production, and distribution, so as to offer guidance to key managers, and in some cases to all employees. A well done operational plan can also be used to raise expansion capital, or even to attract prospective acquirers.

How do you know which kind of plan you should be preparing? Sometimes it's best to ask prospective backers what kind they would like to see. And if you haven't prepared anything, you can try to steer them toward the simplest plan, as in: "How about if we send you our executive summary?" Then you can get busy writing, in hopes of completing something reasonable in a few days.

But be prepared. If the prospective backers are truly interested, they may come back with the question: "Do you guys have any more detail to back up what you sent us?" Then the next step could be a summary business plan, or maybe even a full plan.

Adapted from:



on steroids - in a much more powerful or extreme form

entrepreneur - someone who starts their own business, especially when this involves seeing a new opportunity

venture - a new activity, usually in business, which involves risk or uncertainty

venture capital - money that is invested or is available for investment in a new company, especially a risky one

angel investor - An angel investor is an affluent individual who provides capital for a business start-up, usually in exchange for convertible debt or ownership equity.

acknowledge - to accept, admit or recognize something, or the truth or existence of something

determine - to control or influence something directly, or to decide what will happen

summary - a short clear description that gives the main facts or ideas about something

do the trick - to do exactly what is needed

convince - to persuade someone or make them certain

backer - someone who gives financial support to something

have what it takes - to have the skills, power, intelligence, etc., to do something.

address the issue - to give attention to or deal with a matter or problem

hitting items on a list – deal with some issues successfully

cohesive - united and working together effectively

convincing - able to make you believe that something is true or right

a cross between - a mixture of two different things which have been combined to produce something new

emphasis - the particular importance or attention that you give to something

particulars - details or information about a person or an event, especially when officially recorded

complement - to make something else seem better or more attractive when combining with it

relevant - connected with what is happening or being discussed

sth is likely to be - describes something that will probably happen or is expected

recipient - a person who receives something

look ahead - to think about the future

prospective - people who are expected to buy something/employ someone/become a parent, etc

feature - a typical quality or an important part of something

warranty - a written promise from a company to repair or replace a product that develops a fault within a fixed period of time, or to do a piece of work again if it is not satisfactory; a guarantee

cash flow - the amount of money moving into and out of a business

guidance - help and advice about how to do something or about how to deal with problems connected with your work, education, or personal relationships

steer towards - to guide something in the direction of someone or something


Przejdź do ćwiczeń

poniedziałek, 18 stycznia 2010

We all experience stress in our lives. Some of us thrive on it. Some of us muddle through. And for others, the stress causes serious health and work problems. As life has gotten faster and more complex, it gets more and more difficult to thrive. Apart from the usual stress management "suspects", like eating well, exercising and so on, there are some techniques you can use to reduce the stress in your life (or at least make your reactions more constructive.) We're going to cover some of these techniques, to help you learn them. Most of them fall into the category of relaxation techniques.


Relaxation techniques have been around for a long time and well explored by psychologists. None of the things we're going to talk about are strange or weird, they are just based on straight-forward science. While the actual process of learning how to relax deeply vary and have different names (eg. self-hypnosis, meditation, or just relaxation), they have one thing in common. You use them to put yourself in a deep relaxation state, where your heart rate, breathing rate, and "thinking rate" slow down.

Keep in mind that what works for one person may not work for another. One technique may work for you, and another may not. So, you may have to experiment. In order to benefit from learning relaxation techniques you must practice (or relax) regularly.

The Different Relaxation Techniques

There is autogenic relaxation. This is a form of passive relaxation (you don't move anything). You listen to a tape (or once you've learned to do it, you can do it without the tape), where you imagine different parts of your body becoming heavy, warm and relaxed.

Progressive relaxation is a bit different in that it involves physical movement. It works like this. You tense particular body parts, one at a time (your hand, your forearm, etc), hold the tension and then let it go (either quickly or slowly). You attend to the feelings of tension and relaxation so you can become better at identifying your tension, and learning how to release it.

Guided imagery relaxation is different yet again. It involves imagining yourself in soothing, calm surroundings (on the beach, for example), and attending to the details of the experience (eg. the sand on your feet, the warmth of the sun.

Self-hypnosis is really quite similar to some of the approaches above. Often self-hypnosis involves the use of affirmations (positive or relaxing statements) once you have achieved a deep sense of relaxation.

Subliminal Techniques are supposed to work this way. Buried in music or other sounds are various statements that you can't consciously hear, but, supposedly, your unconscious can hear. Unfortunately, there is little or no proof that these work the way they are supposed to, but as we said, it may work for you, and if it does, go for it.

Meditation techniques used to be drawn from Eastern philosophy, but people have found that it's possible to use mediation techniques without subscribing to the religious tenets that used to be associated with them. Meditation for relaxation usually involves focusing your attention on a word, your breathing, or a simple object. Its purpose is to calm the mind.

Finally, some people find it relaxing to listen to certain kinds of music (usually classical) or nature sounds. It doesn't turn my crank but maybe it will work for you.

Also, in the event that you are experiencing severe stress, don't go the self-help route without also contacting your doctor to see if he or she can help. This is particularly important since stress can affect your physical well-being.

Adapted from


thrive - to grow, develop or be successful

muddle through - to manage to do something although you are not organized and do not know how to do it

a suspect - a person believed to have committed a crime or done something wrong, or something believed to have caused something bad

tense - If you or your muscles tense, your muscles become stiff and tight because you are frightened or nervous, or are preparing yourself to do something

release - to express a feeling which you have been trying not to show

involve - to include someone or something in something, or to make them take part in or feel part of it

attend to - to deal with something or help someone

approach – method, way of dealing with something

affirmation - Something declared to be true; a positive statement or judgment.

statement - something that someone says or writes officially, or an action done to express an opinion

consciously – in a determined and intentional way

subscribe to - to agree with or support an opinion, belief or theory

tenet - one of the principles on which a belief or theory is based

route - a method of achieving something

turn my crank – give a person pleasure



Read the text and answer the questions True or False:

1. Eating well and exercising are two ways of handling stress singlehandedly as opposed to self-hypnosis, meditation, or just relaxation which can be performed only under supervision of a therapist

2. Different relaxation techniques described in this article engage relaxation of different body parts

3. It is advisory to introduce doctor’s control when taking up the exercises.

4. The effectiveness of the techniques described in the article depends on individual preferences and predispositions



Read the text one more time and fill in the gaps with the missing word from the glossary:

1. A college education is often the best ………….. to a good job.

2. It is a ………….. of contemporary psychology that an individual's mental health is supported by having good social networks.

3. Frank …………………. firmly to the belief that human kindness would overcome evil.

4. He's obviously making a …………………… effort to be nice to me at the moment.

5. He threw paint over the fur coats because he wanted to make a ……………….about cruelty to animals.

6. I always have so many things to …………………….. to when I come into the office after a trip abroad.

7. I prefer teaching methods that actively ………………….. students in learning.

8. He punched the pillow in an effort to …………………. his anger.

9. Don't …………………… your shoulders, just relax.


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poniedziałek, 04 stycznia 2010

Buying the perfect Christmas gift for someone at the office can be a difficult task. There are so many ways that you could go wrong when trying to buy a gift, especially if it is a gift for someone you work with or work for. The last thing you want to do is offend someone when you are trying to please him or her. This can be avoided by following some general gift giving rules and by using some common sense.

Buying a Christmas gift for the office Christmas party is one the most difficult gift giving situations to deal with, especially if you have to buy a gift for someone you do not know very well. Here are a few tips that may help:

- Never give food items as a gift to someone you do not know very well. You never know when someone might be allergic to that particular food item.

- Never give distasteful gifts, such as lingerie or gag gifts of a sexual nature, at the office Christmas party. Even though these types of gifts are meant to be fun, they will often embarrass not only the recipient but also those who are watching him/her open the gift. If the person is a good friend, you can still give them this type of gift, just save it for outside the work place.

- If you have to buy a gift for someone who is from a different cultural background, do some research before you choose a gift. Be very careful that you do not choose a gift that cannot be perceived as cheap or offensive. Some items have a completely different meaning and value in other cultures.

- When giving a gift to your boss it is probably a better idea to give a joint gift with all of your coworkers. Giving a gift to your boss on your own can create tension in the workplace. It may make your coworkers feel that you are trying to manipulate your boss in some way or that you are the bosses pet.

- Keep the cost of the gift to a minimum. Do not spend more than $15 or $20 on a gift for a coworker. Anything more than that may send the wrong message or it may even offend other coworkers.

- Finally, NEVER, EVER reuse a gift that was originally given to you as a gift. This is called re-gifting and it is a gift giving no-no. Re-gifting shows that you are cheap and that you did not put any thought into choosing a gift. It is also very disrespectful to both the person who originally bought you the gift and the person to whom you are giving the gift. If you do not like a gift that someone gave you, either return it or just give it to someone else. Do not use it as a Christmas gift for someone else.

Buying a Christmas gift for someone at the office can be a bit tricky. Buying an inappropriate or offensive gift could easily create an awkward working environment. Follow the guidelines above and use some common sense when purchasing a Christmas gift for a coworker. You do not want to be the one that creates waves at the office Christmas party.

Adapted from:


common sense - the basic level of practical knowledge and judgment that we all need to help us live in a reasonable and safe way

distasteful - something unpleasant or unacceptable

lingerie - women's underwear

gag –a trick played on someone or an action performed to entertain other people

recipient - a person who receives something

offensive – causing offence, insulting

disrespectful – impolite, rude

tricky - difficult to deal with and needs careful attention or skill

inappropriate – out of place, improper

awkward - causing problems, worry or embarrassment



Read the text and answer the questions true or false:

1. You can easily avoid buying an awkward Christmas gift if you buy only for coworkers you know really well.

2. If the person is your boss, you can wait with the gift until later besides workplace.

3. If you buy a present for someone from a different country make sure that you spend more than 15$ or 20$

4. Re-gifting is forwarding received presents to other recipient.

5. Buying underwear is always a gift giving no-no.


Read the text again and fill the gaps with the missing words from the glossary

1. I always feel ………………………….when I'm with Chris - he's so difficult to talk to.

2. I think it would be …………………… to invite her to a party so soon after her husband's death.

3. He found the subject of their conversation very ……………………………….. .

4. Windsurfing is perfectly safe as long as you use some …………………………….

5. This program contains language that some viewers might find ……………………….

6. I'm in a bit of a ……………………… situation really - whatever I do I'll offend someone.


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czwartek, 17 grudnia 2009

Going to an office Christmas party can be great fun. It can also be like walking through a mine field. Make a major mistake in your behavior and it'll probably be remembered and talked about for years. It can also come into play at your next performance review. Chances are it won't be mentioned but it can still linger there, an unspoken dagger in your professional heart. So what shouldn't you do at the party?

First on the list is don't get drunk. Alcohol can relax you and help you enjoy the evening, but get too "relaxed" and you'll be saying and doing things that can harm your reputation and lessen the amount of trust your superiors are likely to place in you. If you can't depend on yourself to limit the amount of alcohol you drink, don't drink any at all. Do that and you'll find yourself enjoying one of the best parts of an office Christmas party: watching other people drink too much and make fools of themselves. It's much better to wake up the next morning with a sense of sober superiority than a hangover.

Second on the list is think twice about what you choose to wear to the party. This is especially true for women because they have so many options. For men it's tie or no tie, slacks or jeans, dress shoes or sneakers. A guy can make a fashion mistake but it's not likely to be fatal. A woman on the other hand can select a wardrobe that makes a real statement about herself. So when you're standing in front of a mirror trying to decide what to wear, think about the image you want to project in the office and select something that fits that image. You want to be noticed but you want people thinking you're stylish and appropriate. You don't want Joe in accounting thinking "Wow! What a babe!". That's great for another party but not this one. So limit the amount of skin that you show. If it's something you'd wear to your parents' wedding anniversary party you're probably safe. Unless your parents are rock stars.

Dancing is often a staple at office Christmas parties. If that's the case and you're going to the party alone, spread yourself around. Dance with a lot of people. Think of it as a chance to have a one-on-one conversation with people you don't ordinarily spend a lot of time with. It doesn't have to be a deep conversation, just three minutes of casual chit-chat, assumingR-rated, but at office parties it's best to dance the way you'd dance with your brother or sister. the music isn't so loud you can't be heard. Another thing to consider is the way you dance. These days the dance floor can be

Another thing to avoid is office talk. A party is not the time to discuss the Jenkins contract or the problems you're having with a co-worker. After all, no one is there to make decisions and that co-worker might be right behind you listening to every word you say.

Some people think the office Christmas party is the perfect time to cozy up to the boss. It's not. You want to speak to the boss, spend a few minutes with him or her and thank them for the party. But don't try to kiss his ass or make her your best buddy. They'll know you're trying to manipulate them and your effort will probably backfire.

Food will be a big part of the party. If you don't like the spread, keep it to yourself. Don't complain about the menu or how much is being spent on the party. Nothing good will come of complaining.

Bottom line, behave at the party the way you'd be expected to behave if it was a client party. Keep it dignified, light, and friendly. The rules of good office behavior don't change because someone opens a bottle of champagne. If anything, they get even more important. Break them and people will remember. For a very long time.


linger - to take a long time to leave or disappear

dagger - a short pointed knife which is sharp on both sides, used especially in the past as a weapon

harm your reputation - to hurt or damage the general estimation in which a person is held by the public.

lessen - if something lessens or is lessened, it becomes less strong

make a fool of - to do something which makes you seem stupid

sober superiority - when you behave and think as if you are better than other people because you did not drink or were affected by alcohol

hangover - a feeling of illness after drinking too much alcohol

slacks - a pair of trousers, usually of a type that fit loosely

make a statement – to say something officially, or an action done to express an opinion

project an image - if you project a particular quality, that quality is what most people notice about you

staple - a basic or principal element or feature.

spread yourself around - to distribute people or things over an area.

chit-chat - informal conversation about matters which are not important

assume - to take for granted; suppose

r-rated - an r-rated motion picture may include adult themes, adult activity, hard language, intense or persistent violence, sexually-oriented nudity, drug abuse or other elements, so that parents are counseled to take this rating very seriously.

backfire - to have the opposite result from the one you intended

come of - to happen as a result of something

dignified - controlled, serious and calm, and therefore deserving respect

bottom line - the most important fact in a situation


Read the text and choose the right meaning of the expressions below:

1. Walking through a mine field.

a) To be in a situation or subject which is very complicated and full of hidden problems and dangers

b) When all the competitors take part in a race or activity

2. It can also come into play

a) to become an important factor in something

b) to agree to work with or help someone in the way they have suggested

3. It's not likely to be fatal

a) it will not have an important bad effect in the future

b) the situation is not promising and likely to fail.

4. Limit the amount of skin that you show

a) You should not wear any coats or furs made of leather

b) Do not show much of your naked body


Read the text and fill in the gaps with the missing words from the glossary

1. After the play had finished, we ………………………….. for a while in the bar hoping to catch sight of the actors.

2. Recently the president has sought to …………………….. a much tougher image.

3. Did anything ……………………… of all those job applications?

4. He has maintained a ……………………… silence about the rumors.

5. Her plans to make him jealous ………………………. on her when he went off with her best friend.

6. I …………………….. that you knew each other because you went to the same school.

7. The government is expected to make a ………………………….. about the investigation to the press.

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środa, 09 grudnia 2009

Everyone has their own idea of a retail sales job. Our mind instantly remembers that one person who follows you around the store asking you if you need anything when you simply want to look around. Though people don't really realize it but without sales jobs who would help us find that special item that we are looking for? Internet sales are taking a big portion away from the retail industry, but sometimes you need that special expertise and service that you simply can't get from clicking a computer button.

What is FMCG? This stands for fast moving consumer goods. This used to be known as the grocery industry. They have evolved beyond this. You as consumer determine what items are constantly sold by your purchases. These are the items that all the major stores have decided they must keep on their shelves at all times. These companies have specialized in the production, distribution, and marketing of consumer packed goods. These are billion dollar industries geared towards getting you to buy that something that you may or may not need. If something is no longer selling as well then they may come out with a new segment of that same product. Fat-free or low fat foods are a prime example.

Retail sales jobs require one to have a good attitude and don't mind dealing with the general public. You will likely be on your feet all day talking to customers and helping them with retail purchases. You don't have to have a college degree unless you are in a more managerial position. Stores will tend to hire more temporary retail workers around the Christmas holidays as they have a bigger clientele that shops for presents during that time of the year. The pay is usually hourly and may or may not include sales bonuses. These can be full or part time positions. One added bonuses is usually a discount on the items that are sold in the store you work for.

To work in the consumer sales segment you will need a four year college degree in management, or marketing. For some of the higher level positions you will also need an MBA and previous business experience dealing with consumer products. This industry is not known for large layoffs unless two industry giants are merging operations. It is motivated by profit margins, name brand slogans and television jingles. Many of the big companies are part of the Fortune 500. Sara lee, Nestle', Proctor and Gamble are a just a few.

If you are considering a sales job in the retail or FMCG industry make sure that you research the company prior to applying to learn about the different companies to discover which ones are more appealing to you. Network within the industry for job leads to improve your oddsreferral from someone that is currently working there you will stand out and have a good chance of getting the job. of getting hired. If you can get a


take away – to remove something

evolve - to develop gradually, or to cause something or someone to develop gradually

determine - to control or influence something directly, or to decide what will happen

gear toward - to design or organize something so that it is suitable for a particular purpose, situation or group of people

come out - if information or results come out, they are given to people

deal with - to take action in order to achieve something or in order to solve a problem

job lead - a piece of information which allows finding a job

layoff - when someone stops employing someone, sometimes temporarily, because there is no money to pay them or because there is no work for them

merging operations – joining together different processes

jingle - a short simple tune, often with words, which is easy to remember and is used to advertise a product on the radio or television

appealing - attractive or interesting

odds - the probability that a particular thing will or will not happen

referral - when you direct someone to a different place or person for information, help or action, often to a person or group with more knowledge or power


Read the text and answer the questions true or false:

1. With the internet sales on the rise, special expertise and service become simply unnecessary.

2. The grocery industry evolved into fast moving consumer goods industry.

3. Nowadays products that no longer sell must be kept on the shelves at all times.

4. Retail sales jobs do not require college degree except for executive positions.

5. The job in the consumer sales segment is rather stable provided industry giants are not merging.

6. The chances of getting hired in the FMCG industry increase if you get recommendations.



Read the text one more time and fill in the gaps with the missing words from the glossary:

1. The number of staff we can take on will be ………………………….. by how much money we're allowed to spend.

2. The doctor gave him a ………………… the consultant.

3. The company has ………………….. over the years into a multi-million dollar organization.

4. The idea of not having to get up early every morning is rather …………………….. to me.

5. The workshops are ………………….. towards helping people to become more employable.

6. How do you intend to ………………….. with this problem?

7. The recent economic crisis has led to massive …………………..

8. If you drive a car all your life, the …………………….. are that you'll have an accident at some point.


Find antonyms:

1. Evolve a) wholesale

2. Retail b) to be against

3. Do not mind c) off-putting

4. Temporary d) permanent

5. Appealing e) stagnate


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