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środa, 07 maja 2008
Even if you're lucky enough to work with people you like, chances are that from time to time they will drive you mad. But what if you're being bullied? If people you work with threaten, undermine, offend or humiliate you?

A bully is a person who uses their strength or power to threaten, undermine, offend or humiliate others.

According to the Chartered Institute of Personnel Development, most companies regard the following behaviour as constituting bullying:

  • Physically attacking others

  • Threatening violence

  • Making insulting comments

  • Humiliating or ridiculing others about their work

  • Removing the rights or responsibilities of others

  • Constantly criticizing others

  • Passing off the work of others as your own

  • Spreading rumours or gossip

  • Ignoring others

  • Invading others' personal space

  • So, how do you stop the bully? The advice is: meet the bully head-on. Nip it in the bud. Stand up for yourself. Tell him - or her, what you think. Like this, maybe

    Dear Elizabeth, Your behaviour towards me has been unacceptable recently. For example, you undermined my suggestion at the weekly brainstorming session last week, saying my idea was 'pie in the sky'. I found this very embarrassing in front of my team and my manager. And you also rolled up your eyes to heaven on the other three occasions I spoke during the session. This is an inappropriate way to behave towards me and I would like you to stop.
    bully - osoba, która zastrasza, tyranizuje, znęca się (nad słabszymi)
    to drive sb mad - doprowadzać kogoś do szału

    to bully - znęcać się, zastraszać, tyranizować

    to undermine - podkopać, osłabić, nadszarpnąć

    to threaten - grozić, straszyć

    to offend - obrażać

    to humiliate - upokarzać

    behaviour - zachowanie

    to constitute - tu: stanowić (coś)

    violence - przemoc

    insulting comment - obelżywa uwaga

    to ridicule - ośmieszać

    to remove - usunąć, odebrać

    rights and responsibilites - prawa i obowiązki

    to pass off - udawać, fałszywie przedstawiać/reprezentować

    to spread rumour or gossip - rozsiewać pogłoski i plotki

    to invade sb's personal space - naruszać czyjąś przestrzeń osobistą

    to meet head-on - stawić czoła

    to nip in the bud - zdusić w zarodku

    to stand up for oneself - stanąć we własnej obronie

    unacceptable - nie do zaakceptowania

    brainstorming session - sesja burzy mózgów

    pie in the sky - mrzonka, gruszka na wierzbie

    embarassing - żenujący

    team - zespół, ekipa

    to roll up one's eyes to heaven - przewracać oczami, wznosić oczy do nieba (w geście zniecierpliwienia, lekceważenia itp.)

    inappropriate - nieodpowiedni

    Przeczytaj przegląd prasy brytyjskiej w oryginale - Jobshopping

    ABCDE is a technique used very effectively in optimism training. It takes a specific event and interprets it in either positive or negative way. Then It challenges the negative interpretation and encourages you to find a more positive one. Here's how:

    A - is the Activating event - the situation. 'My colleague snapped at me this morning when I asked her a simple question about the report we're both working on'. B - is the Belief - how you interpret the event. You can interpret your colleague's behaviour either positively or negatively. Positive belief: 'She has a lot on her plate at the moment, she's so busy. And her boyfriend has dumped her recently, I think'.

    Negative belief: 'She doesn't like me and thinks I'm useless'. C - is the Consequence. Your behaviour that results from your - positive or negative - belief. Positive consequence: 'I'll talk to her about the report later when she's less busy'. Negative consequence: 'I'm not going to talk to her about the report again. In fact, I'm going to avoid her from now on'. D - is for Dispute. The positive consequence is reasonable. Dispute the negative. Challenge the reason for the negative consequence. 'Hang on, I've noticed that she's behaving the same way towards the others, maybe she's just stressed, maybe it's got nothing to do with me?' E - is the Effect. An alternative explanation leads to a positive outcome. 'I'll wait a bit and try to talk to her about the report when she's less busy. Maybe we could have coffee together and talk about things'.


    ABCDE (Activating event, Belief, Consequence, Dispute, Effect) - akronim oznaczający technikę

    optymistycznego myślenia

    activating - pobudzający, uruchamiający, aktywizujący

    event - wydarzenie

    belief - przekonanie

    dispute - spór, kwestionowanie

    effect - efekt, rezultat

    to challenge - rzucać wyzwanie, podawać w wątpliwość, kwestionować

    to encourage - zachęcać

    colleague - kolega, koleżanka (z pracy)

    to snap at sb - warknąć na kogoś

    behaviour - zachowanie

    to have a lot on one's plate - mieć dużo spraw na głowie

    to dump - rzucić, porzucić

    useless - bezużyteczny

    to avoid - unikać

    reasonable - rozsądny

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    Przeczytaj przegląd prasy brytyjskiej w oryginale - The rise of the new nomadics

    According to experts, in order to be happy at work you have to communicate well - with your boss and your colleagues. But, since communication is a two-way process, you are only 50% in control - the rest is up to other person. There's plenty of room for error, so you've got to know your communication rules.

    So, when you do the talking: KISS - all the time. No, it doesn't mean that you have to run round the office kissing everybody in sight; it means you have to Keep It Short and Simple. Get your message across and don't waffle. Think about the five Ws: What? When? Who? Where? And Why? Get your facts right. It's no good saying: 'I want what's his name to produce reports you know which ones for the AGM in a month no, in two months' time'. Try this: 'I would like Anna Jones to produce spreadsheet reports by the end of this month so they could be presented at the AGM next month'. And don't forget the 'H' word - How the message is delivered. Apparently words account for only 7 per cent of the message; body language, eye contact and the tone of voice account for the rest of the emotional make-up of the message.

    Speaking of which don't get emotional - especially when you're making a complaint or dealing with a difficult issue. Emotional messages work best when they are delivered non-emotively and are backed up by specific evidence. So, instead of screaming 'You are an idiot!' - you say calmly - 'You are an idiot' - and back it up with evidence. When you do the listening: Ask questions - and listen to the answers. Listen, listen and listen some more. It's a key to relating to others. Besides, answers will provide you with all sorts of useful information. Asking is including - it's empowering for the team member to be asked 'What do you think?' It improves openness, morale and understanding. So ask and listen but - make sure you don't interrogate!


    KISS (Keep It Short and Simple) - akronim: mów zwięźle i jasno

    error - błąd

    to kiss - całować

    to get a message across - przekazać wiadomość, komunikat

    to waffle - ględzić, rozwodzić się

    to get one's facts right - znać fakty, wiedzieć o co chodzi

    AGM (Annual General Meeting) - doroczne walne zgromadzenie

    to produce a spreadsheet report - przygotować raport na arkuszu kalkulacyjnym

    to deliver - przekazać, dostarczyć

    to account for - stanowić

    body language - język ciała

    eye contact - kontakt wzrokowy

    tone of the language - ton języka

    emotional make-up - zawartość emocjonalna

    to make a complaint - złożyć skargę

    to deal - radzić (sobie), uporać się

    non-emotively - w sposób nie emotywny, nie zabarwiony emocjonalnie

    backed up - wsparty, poparty

    to include - włączać

    empowering - dowartościowujący

    team member - członek zespołu, ekipy

    to interrogate - przesłuchiwać

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    Przeczytaj przegląd prasy brytyjskiej w oryginale - Experts predict more home-working

    Positive self-management is vital in creating a happy work environment. But how do you self-manage yourself positively? Well, you have to have a cunning plan: identify what will make you happy at work and pursue it actively. Just SMILE Well, it's not quite simple as that. SMILE stands for 5 rules of behaviour at work: Strive, Motivate, Inspire, Lead and Energise.

    Let's start with STRIVE. STRIVE means that you have to be proactive - you must seek out opportunities to create a happier work environment for yourself and not wait for happiness to land on your desk. For example, you have an unreasonable boss. You can do nothing and remain unhappy about it. Or you try to bond with him. Or explain to him, using specific examples why asking you to produce 4 long reports in one day may be perceived as slightly difficult.

    MOTIVATE yourself. Remind yourself constantly of what motivates your job satisfaction. Is it the responsibility you've been given, or maybe flexible hours? Seek out people and work situations that make you happy. Have a laugh with your colleagues at least once a day!

    INSPIRE yourself. Be an inspiration to yourself. Set yourself challenging goals and acknowledge your successes. For example, you felt that your career lacked prospects, so you retrained and diversified within your company or - found yourself another job somewhere else.

    LEAD. Instead of looking to others for leadership, be your own boss. Make decisions. Psychologists have found a clear link between goal-setting, decision-making and job satisfaction.

    ENERGISE. Do all this with dynamism, energy and optimism (even if you don't feel like it!). Remember, just as success breeds success, happiness breeds happiness.


    to smile - uśmiechać się

    SMILE (Strive Motivate Inspire Lead Energise) - akronim oznaczający pięć zasad automotywacji w pracy

    to strive - dążyć, zmierzać (do czegoś)

    to motivate - motywować

    to inspire - inspirować

    to lead - prowadzić, przewodzić, stać na czele

    to energise - pobudzać do działania, energizować

    proactive - proaktywny

    to seek out opportunities - wyszukiwać, wynajdować okazje/możliwości

    environment - środowisko

    unreasonable - nierozsądny

    to bond - zbliżyć się, stworzyć silną więź, zespolić

    to produce reports - przygotowywać raporty

    job satisfaction - zadowolenie z pracy

    responsibility - odpowiedzialność

    flexible hours - ruchome godziny pracy

    to have a laugh - pośmiać się, ubawić

    to set oneself a challenging goal - wyznaczyć sobie trudne zadanie/wyzwanie

    to lack - brakować

    career prospect - perspektywa kariery zawodowej

    to retrain - przeszkolić (się)

    to diversify - poszerzyć zakres, zróżnicować, dywersyfikować

    leadership - przywództwo

    be your own boss - bądź sam sobie szefem

    goal-setting - wyznaczanie celów

    decision-making - podejmowanie decyzji

    success breeds success - sukces rodzi sukces 

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    Przeczytaj przegląd prasy brytyjskiej w oryginale - How to deal with truants from the workplace

    According to experts your job satisfaction soars when you are achieving the goals you've set yourself. Your goals should be therefore focused on outcomes. So, instead of making your goal: 'Learning how to use EXCEL' - make it about why you want to do this. You simply have to be SMART about achieving your goals. SMART is a set of useful criteria for setting your goals. It stands for: Specific Measurable Achievable Results-oriented Time-bound

    Write down your goal in a SMART way. Like this, for example: 'I want to learn how to use EXCEL because I want to be able to produce spreadsheet reports for the sales team due to be presented at the AGM in three months' time'.

    How to be SMART:

    Specific - Can I pinpoint the outcome I want to achieve? Yes, I'll be able to produce those spreadsheet reports using EXCEL.

    Measurable - Can I measure the outcome? Yes, I'll be able to use EXCEL and produce spreadsheet reports.

    Achievable - Is it a realistic goal, given my skills and resources? Yes, I can sign on a training course in EXCEL. I can also get technical support from in-house IT experts.

    Results-oriented - Oh, there will be results! You just wait and see (If I learn how to produce spreadsheet reports in EXCEL - what a result, eh?)

    Time-bound - do I have a timeframe or a deadline allocated to my goal? Yes, 3 months. I'll be able to produce those spreadsheet reports using EXCEL in three months' time. (They're due to be presented at the AGM in three months' time).

    Use SMART to help you define and plan your goals.


    smart - mądry, sprytny, inteligentny

    SMART (Specific Measurable Achievable Results-oriented Time-bound) - akronim utworzony od 5 wyrazów oznaczający zestaw kryteriów do wyznaczania celów i zadań w pracy

    specific - konkretny

    measurable - wymierny

    achievable - osiągalny

    results-oriented - nastawiony na rezultaty

    time-bound - ograniczony w czasie, mieszczący się w danym przedziale czasowym

    job satisfaction - zadowolenie z pracy

    to soar - gwałtownie wzrosnąć, podskoczyć, pójść w górę

    to achieve a goal - osiągnąć cel

    to set oneself a goal - wyznaczyć sobie cel

    outcome - wynik, rezultat

    spreadsheet report - raport na arkuszu kalkulacyjnym

    sales team - dział sprzedaży

    AGM (Annual General Meeting) - doroczne walne zgromadzenie (akcjonariuszy)

    to pinpoint - dokładnie określić, zidentyfikować

    skills - umiejętności, zdolności

    resources - środki

    to sign on a training course - zapisać się na kurs szkoleniowy

    in-house IT experts - eksperci od IT w miejscu pracy

    timeframe - ramy czasowe

    deadline - termin ostateczny

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    Przeczytaj przegląd prasy brytyjskiej w oryginale - Speak up loud and proud

    The British government has introduced a number of financial incentives to encourage young mothers to go back to work. It has also pumped L21 billion into subsidising childcare and toddler education. However, Professor Jay Belsky, the director of the Institute for the Study of Children and Families, who was commissioned by the government to assess its costly family centre schemes, says that the government has got it all wrong. Here's why:

    The professor's findings are quite embarrassing for the government. According to him, toddlers who spend long hours in nurseries or with childminders suffer disconcerting effects. These include difficult relationships with their mothers and aggressive and disobedient behaviour when they start school. Those who spend time in centre-based care from a very young age are particularly at risk.

    According to childcare research, tax policies should therefore reduce - rather than increase - the pressure on mothers to go back to work. Mothers should get tax breaks to help them bring up their children at home. These findings are a big blow to Labour, which has been pressing mothers to go back to work by giving out large sums through the tax credit system. Now, according to its own expert, the government has got it all wrong.

    But it looks like British men have got it wrong too! A recent study has revealed that most of them pay only lip service to 21st century notions of sexual equality. More than 80 per cent reject as old-fashioned the idea that women should stay at home, but just 23 per cent of couples split domestic chores such as laundry evenly between them. So, a century after the heyday of the suffragette movement, it seems women really can have it all. They can have a job and a family - and do the cooking, cleaning and laundry too.


    to pay - płacić

    mum - mama

    to look after - opiekować się

    to introduce - wprowadzić

    to encourage - zachęcić

    to pump - tu: wpompować, inwestować

    childcare - system opieki nad dziećmi

    toddler - dziecko, które uczy się albo dopiero co nauczyło się chodzić

    to commission - zlecić, zamówić

    government - rząd

    to assess - ocenić

    to get it all wrong - wszystko pokręcić, źle zrobić, nic nie rozumieć
    findings - wyniki, rezultaty, konkluzje

    embarrassing - żenujący

    nursery - żłobek

    childminder - opiekun/ka do dziecka

    disconcerting - niepokojący

    relationship - więź, stosunek, relacja

    disobedient - nieposłuszny

    behaviour - zachowanie

    centre-based care - tu: ośrodki opieki nad dziećmi

    to be at risk - być narażonym na ryzyko

    research - badania

    tax politcies - polityka podatkowa

    to reduce - zmniejszyć, obniżyć

    to increase - zwiększyć, podwyższyć

    tax break - ulga podatkowa

    to bring up - wychowywać

    blow - tu: cios

    to press - zmuszać, wywierać presję

    tax credit system - system kredytów podatkowych

    to pay lip service - składać gołosłowne deklaracje

    sexual equality - równość płci

    old-fashioned - staromodny, przestarzały

    to split - dzielić, podzielić się czymś

    domestic chores - obowiązki domowe

    laundry - pranie

    heyday- okres rozkwitu

    suffragette movement - ruch sufrażystek

    to have it all - mieć wszystko (o czym dusza zamarzy)

    job - praca

    cooking - gotowanie

    cleaning - sprzątanie

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    Przeczytaj przegląd prasy brytyjskiej w oryginale - Big Brother in the Office

    Many of us dream about the day when we can finally retire and leave the stresses of working life behind. But many discover that retirement, after years of work, leaves them bored and unfulfilled. They miss the buzz. They talk 'returnment'.

    A report entitled 'Living Britain' examined the trends affecting modern British society. It has found that the make-up of the workforce is changing with more people going back to work after retirement or starting again with a new career. As men and women live longer, more employees are being forced to carry on working to fund their retirement, making a second or even third career increasingly common. 'Retirement careers' are now widespread with over-60s setting up almost 20% of new businesses or becoming consultants.

    And in business, experience is a definite advantage. Older people who have retired bring with them an equilibrium and security. They are also less likely to make rash decisions. A lot of companies seek out older workers. Some banks retrain their 'silver foxes' after retirement to advise customers on insurance and investment products. They believe older customers are more likely to buy from someone they relate to who empathizes with their needs.


    retirement - emerytura

    returnment - (neologizm) tu oznacza: powrót do pracy po przejściu na emeryturę' (od: to return - wracać)

    to retire - przejść na emeryturę

    bored - znudzony

    unfulfilled - niespełniony

    the 'buzz' - gwar, szum, ruch

    make-up - tu: skład

    workforce - siła robocza

    employee - pracownik

    carry on working - kontynuować pracę

    to fund - finansować

    career - kariera

    widespread - rozpowszechniony, powszechny

    over-60s - ludzie po sześćdziesiątce

    to set up - założyć

    experience - doświadczenie

    advantage - zaleta, przewaga

    to bring - przynosić

    equilibrium - równowaga

    security - bezpieczeństwo

    to make rash decisions - podejmować pochopne decyzje

    to seek out - poszukiwać, wyszukać

    to retrain - przeszkolić

    silver fox - dosł. srebrny lis, tu: doświadczony starszy pracownik

    to advise - radzić, doradzać

    insurance - ubezpieczenie

    investment - inwestycje

    customer - klient

    to relate to sb - wczuwać się w sytuację drugiej osoby, rozumieć ją

    to empathize with sb - identyfikować się, wczuwać, rozumieć (kogoś)

    needs - potrzeby 

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    Przeczytaj przegląd prasy brytyjskiej w oryginale - Useless inventions - part 2

    More than half a million of young adults, people under 35, are living on state benefits in Britain because they say they are too ill to work. This group now outnumbers people of the same age who are registered as unemployed looking for work.

    The so-called 'sicknote' benefits are popular among the unemployed because they pay more than benefits such as Jobseeker's Allowance which go to those who are looking for work. For example, someone aged between 18 and 24 can get around L46 a week from Jobseeker's Allowance but around L61 from the lowest rate of Incapacity Benefit.

    Claimants include many people capable of work, who choose not to work. The government wants to introduce medical tests to weed out the less disabled claimants, but they would probably push only a small number of people back to work. A recent study has revealed that the majority are claiming Incapacity Benefit for 'mental and behavioural disorder' - a category of benefit that includes claims of stress.

    The government, say the critics, has spent billions on welfare-to-work initiatives such as tax credits, to persuade the young unemployed to take jobs, and has achieved virtually nothing. They claim that a whole generation is being lost to Britain's 'sicknote' culture.


    sick note - zwolnienie lekarskie

    sicknote - (pisane razem, w formie przymiotnikowej)

    generation - pokolenie

    state benefit - zasiłki państwowe

    to outnumber - przewyższać liczebnie

    unemployed - bezrobotny

    to pay - płacić

    Jobseeker's Allowance - zasiłek dla bezrobotnych (którzy zarejestrowali się jako osoby poszukujące pracy = job seekers)

    Incapacity Benefit - zasiłek chorobowy (wypłacany z powodu niezdolności do pracy)

    claimant - osoba ubiegająca się/pobierająca zasiłek

    capable of - zdolny do (czegoś)

    to weed out - wyrugować, odsiać, wyeliminować

    disabled - niepełnosprawny

    study - sondaż, badanie

    to reveal - ujawnić

    to claim - wystąpić o, pobierać (np. zasiłek)

    mental disorder - zaburzenia psychiczne

    behavioural disorder - zaburzenia zachowania

    claim - roszczenie

    welfare-to-work - bodźce finansowe zachęcające do podjęcia pracy

    [working] tax credits - kredyty podatkowe (płatność wyrównująca zarobki dla osób o niskich dochodach i pracujących nie mniej niż 16 godzin tygodniowo)

    to achieve - osiągać

    virtually - prawie

    to lose - tracić

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    Przeczytaj przegląd prasy brytyjskiej w oryginale- Useless inventions - Part 1

    It looks like gone are the days when nervous interviewees had to answer all sorts of probing questions about their age, marital status or lifestyle. The British consumer organisation 'Which?' has produced a handbook highlighting the 'no go' questions for employers interviewing job applicants. Here's more:

    Yes, there was a time when interviewers would mercilessly grill their prospective employees and ask them various probing questions. Not any more. Political correctness in the workplace, in the UK at least, means that bosses are simply not allowed to ask you certain questions during an interview. If they do - they could fall foul of discrimination laws and get large fines!

    So, what is allowed and what isn't? Well, all the questions asked during an interview must follow strict criteria and must refer only to your ability to do the job properly. As bosses can't judge this ability on the basis of your age, sexual orientation, religion or lifestyle, they have no business asking you about these things! Here are some of the no-go questions: How old are you? Are you married? Are you gay? Are you planning to start a family soon? Are you a member of a trade union? What is your religion?

    Bosses are complaining that with these rules in force they can't find out what type of person a candidate is or whether he'd fit in with their company and staff. They also say that candidates adopt a false persona during an interview -in order to impress. But a recent study has found that bosses, too, mask their true personalities at interview. They too pretend to be someone they're not!

    Maybe that's why so many businesses now are supplementing interviews with psychometric tests and other assessments. But - beware - many employers are now consulting social networking websites such as Facebook to find out more about you


    interview - rozmowa kwalifikacyjna

    no-go area - tu: temat tabu

    interviewee - tu: kandydat, osoba, z którą przeprowadza się rozmowę kwalifikacyjną

    probing - dociekliwy, wnikliwy

    age - wiek

    marital status - stan cywilny

    lifestyle - styl życia

    handbook - podręcznik, przewodnik, informator

    to highlight - podkreślić, uwydatnić, zwrócić uwagę

    employer - pracodawca

    job applicant - osoba ubiegająca się o pracę

    interviewer - tu: osoba przeprowadzająca rozmowę kwalifikacyjną

    mercilessly - bezlitośnie

    to grill - tu: ostro przesłuchiwać, 'maglować'

    prospective - potencjalny, ewentualny, przyszły

    employee - pracownik

    political correctness - poprawność polityczna

    workplace - miejsce pracy

    to fall foul of sth - zadrzeć (np. z prawem)

    fine - grzywna, kara pieniężna

    to follow strict criteria - przestrzegać ścisłych kryteriów

    to refer to - odnosić się

    ability - zdolność, umiejętność

    boss - szef

    to judge - oceniać, osądzać

    married - żonaty, zamężna

    to start a family - założyć rodzinę

    trade union - związek zawodowy

    in force - tu: obowiązujący

    to fit in with - pasować (do kogoś/czegoś), zgadzać się, dostosować

    staff - personel

    to adopt a false persona - przyjąć osobowość udawanej postaci, udawać kogoś innego

    to mask your true personality - maskować swą prawdziwą osobowość

    psychometric test - test psychometryczny

    assessment - ocena

    social networking websites - internetowe strony towarzyskie

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    Przeczytaj przegląd prasy brytyjskiej w oryginale - Jealousy in the work place not always a negative thing

    Can you make money and be a decent person too? Isn't the world full of crooked tycoons? And what about you? Would you be a decent person if you were rich?

    A lot of people think that making money goes hand in hand with being ruthless, manipulative, amoral and greedy. That to make cash you have to sell your soul, your principles and possibly your grandmother too. That being rich means that you are a creep who sacrificed family and friends on the altar of wealth. A stressed out insomniac with a heart problem. Well, it can be like that, but it doesn't have to be. In fact, it shouldn't be. If it is like that, then you're doing it all wrong.

    Look at Bill Gates or Richard Branson. Gates gives money to charities; Branson is such a nice chap! But what about those who have built their empires on fraud or abused the trust of their shareholders? What about dishonest businessmen and crooked tycoons?

    And what about you? Would you be a decent person if you were rich? Would you give to charities or give in to greed? Would you lie, steal or break the law to make your money? If you would, then don't do it. If you have to resort to being bad, it means you have failed.


    morals - zasady moralne

    decent - uczciwy, porządny

    crooked - nieuczciwy

    tycoon - potentat

    to go hand in hand - iść ręka w rękę, iść w parze (z czymś)

    ruthless - bezwzględny

    manipulative - (o osobie) skłonna do manipulacji

    amoral - amoralny

    greedy - chciwy

    soul - dusza

    principles - zasady

    creep - kreatura, wazeliniarz

    to sacrifice - poświęcać

    altar - ołtarz

    wealth - zamożność, dobrobyt

    stressed out - zestresowany

    insomniac - osoba cierpiąca na bezsenność

    charity - dobroczynność, cele dobroczynne/charytatywne

    empire - imperium

    fraud - oszustwo

    to abuse - nadużywać

    trust - zaufanie

    shareholder - akcjonariusz

    to give in - ulec, poddać się

    to lie - kłamać

    to steal - kraść

    to break the law - łamać prawo

    to resort to - uciekać się (do czegoś)

    to fail - nie udać się, ponieść porażkę

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